A late flurry of deadline-day signings took Premier League spending for the summer up to £1.41bn, just short of the £1.43bn record set in 2017, according to Deloitte.
Deadline day spending alone by English top-flight clubs was £170m - but on just 18 deals, the joint fewest number of transfers on the last day of the summer window since 2009.
Everton's £34m signing of forward Alex Iwobi from Arsenal was the biggest incoming Premier League deal, while the largest transfer saw Romelu Lukaku leave Manchester United for Inter Milan for £74m - a loss of £1m on the fee they paid Everton.
Arsenal were the biggest spenders in England during the window, splashing out £155m. On deadline day, they bought £25m Celtic left-back Kieran Tierney and £8m Chelsea centre-back David Luiz.
Tottenham recruited Real Betis midfielder Giovani lo Celso on loan and signed Fulham winger Ryan Sessegnon for £25m. Their pursuit of Juventus forward Paulo Dybala was one of the big stories earlier in the day but the deal fell through.